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Stratigraphers still use the two main principles established by the late 18th-century English engineer and surveyor William Smith, regarded as the father of stratigraphy: (1) that younger beds rest upon older ones and (2) different sedimentary beds contain different and distinctive fossils, enabling beds with similar fossils to be correlated over large distances.Today biostratigraphy uses fossils to characterize successive intervals of geologic time, but as relatively precise time markers only to the beginning of the Cambrian Period, about 540,000,000 years ago.Paleontological research of the fossil record since the Cambrian Period has contributed much to the theory of evolution of life on Earth.Several disciplines of the geologic sciences have practical benefits for society.Determining the Mohs scale of hardness, which lists 10 common minerals in their relative order of hardness: talc (softest with the scale number 1), gypsum (2), calcite (3), fluorite (4), apatite (5), orthoclase (6), quartz (7), topaz (8), corundum (9), and diamond (10).Harder minerals scratch softer ones, so that an unknown mineral can be readily positioned between minerals on the scale.Geology, the fields of study concerned with the solid Earth.

Minerals as basic constituents of rocks and ore deposits are obviously an integral aspect of geology.

Thus a few minerals such as the feldspars, quartz, and mica are the essential ingredients in granite and its near relatives.

Limestones, which are widely distributed on all continents, consist largely of only two minerals, calcite and dolomite.

The problems and techniques of mineralogy, however, are distinct in many respects from those of the rest of geology, with the result that mineralogy has grown to be a large, complex discipline in itself.

About 3,000 distinct mineral species are recognized, but relatively few are important in the kinds of rocks that are abundant in the outer part of the Earth.

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