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Loans that have been in default can be consolidated after three consecutive monthly payments have been made or if the borrower agrees to repay the consolidation loans under an income-driven repayment plan (where the payments are based on the income of the borrower).In short, the term “consolidation” is used to describe the process of combining multiple loans into a single loan while the term “refinancing” is used to describe the process of using a more advantageous loan to repay an older loan.With a private consolidation loan, a private lender writes a new loan that pays off the old loans.The interest rate is primarily determined by the lender’s evaluation of the borrower’s credit history.Borrowers who are out of college or are attending classes less than half-time can consolidate their federal student loans.Only loans that are in repayment or in the grace period are eligible for consolidation, and a Direct Consolidation Loan must include at least one Direct or FFEL Program Loan.Private and federal loans can both be refinanced with a private consolidation loan.
All types of federal student loans can be consolidated together except a Direct PLUS Loan that was taken out by a parent to help pay for a child’s education (student PLUS loans can still be consolidated).
A weighted average means that the loans with a higher balance influence the interest rate more than loans with a smaller balance – the overall impact of each old loan on the new interest rate is proportional to the comparative balance of that loan.
Because the interest rate is a weighted average and rounded up, borrowers won’t ever save money on interest by opting for a federal consolidation loan unless the loans are pre-2006 and have a variable interest rate.
While refinancing is often used in other realms of finance (like mortgages) to describe repaying a single older loan with a new loan, consolidating with a private loan technically includes refinancing as well since the term and interest rate of the new loan are different from the old loans.
Getting a federal consolidation loan isn’t usually considered as “refinancing” since the interest rate of the new loan is equal to the weighted average of the loans being consolidated.