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‘Ali led his forces against Muawiya until the side of Muawiya held copies of the Quran against their spears and demanded that the issue be decided by Islam's holy book.‘Ali accepted this, and an arbitration was done which ended in his favor.It would take another one hundred years after al-Shafi‘i for Sunni Muslim jurists to fully base their methodologies on prophetic Hadiths.After the death of Imam Hasan, Imam Husayn and his family were increasingly worried about the religious and political persecution that was becoming commonplace under the reign of Muawiya's son, Yazid.This respect for Muharram does not include self-flagellation and beating because they feel that harming one's body is harming a gift from Allah.After being set free by Yazid, Zaynab bint Ali, the daughter of Fatimah and Ali and the sister of Hasan and Husayn, started to spread the word of Karbala to the Muslim world, making speeches regarding the event.This spiritual and absolute authority of ‘Ali was known as walayah and it was inherited by his successors, the Imams.
The Entrusted Imam is an Imam in the full sense except that the lineage of the Imamate must continue through the Permanent Imam.
The early followers of ‘Ali seem to have taken his guidance as "right guidance" deriving from Divine support.
In other words, ‘Ali's guidance was seen to be the expression of God's will and the Qur'anic message.
Ismailism shares its beginnings with other early Shi‘i sects that emerged during the succession crisis that spread throughout the early Muslim community.
From the beginning, the Shia asserted the right of Ali, cousin of Muhammad, to have both political and spiritual control over the community.