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Penn named the city Philadelphia, which is Greek for "brotherly love," derived from the Ancient Greek terms φίλος phílos (beloved, dear) and ἀδελφός adelphós (brother, brotherly).
As a Quaker, Penn had experienced religious persecution and wanted his colony to be a place where anyone could worship freely.
By the 1750s, Philadelphia had surpassed Boston to become the largest city and busiest port in British America, and second in the British Empire after London. The free black community also established many schools for its children, with the help of Quakers.
The state capital was moved to Lancaster in 1799, then Harrisburg in 1812, while the federal government was moved to Washington, D. New York City surpassed Philadelphia in population by 1790.
Major corporations in the 19th and early 20th centuries included the Baldwin Locomotive Works, William Cramp & Sons Shipbuilding Company, and the Pennsylvania Railroad. Immigrants, mostly from Ireland and Germany, settled in Philadelphia and the surrounding districts.
These immigrants were largely responsible for the first general strike in North America in 1835, in which workers in the city won the ten-hour workday.
In 1681, in partial repayment of a debt, Charles II of England granted Penn a charter for what would become the Pennsylvania colony.
The Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, and served as temporary U. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub.Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies.Hoping that Philadelphia would become more like an English rural town instead of a city, Penn laid out roads on a grid plan to keep houses and businesses spread far apart, with areas for gardens and orchards.The city's inhabitants did not follow Penn's plans, however, as they crowded by the Delaware River port, and subdivided and resold their lots.