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In ancient times, astronomers noted how certain lights moved across the sky, as opposed to the "fixed stars", which maintained a constant relative position in the sky.

it was almost universally believed that Earth was the center of the Universe and that all the "planets" circled Earth.

Venus, Mercury, and the outer planets Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn were all identified by Babylonian astronomers.

These were regarded by many early cultures as divine, or as emissaries of deities.

This definition is controversial because it excludes many objects of planetary mass based on where or what they orbit.

Although eight of the planetary bodies discovered before 1950 remain "planets" under the modern definition, some celestial bodies, such as Ceres, Pallas, Juno and Vesta (each an object in the solar asteroid belt), and Pluto (the first trans-Neptunian object discovered), that were once considered planets by the scientific community, are no longer viewed as such.

These schemes, which were based on geometry rather than the arithmetic of the Babylonians, would eventually eclipse the Babylonians' theories in complexity and comprehensiveness, and account for most of the astronomical movements observed from Earth with the naked eye.

These theories would reach their fullest expression in the Almagest written by Ptolemy in the 2nd century CE.

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