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Richard Overy explains how the Soviets turned disaster into a victory that led to the formation of a Communist superpower.Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), also called (1925–52) All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks), Russian Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, or Vsesoyuznaya Kommunisticheskaya Partiya (Bolshevikov), the major political party of Russia and the Soviet Union from the Russian Revolution of October 1917 to 1991.In its turn the Central Committee elected the members of various party committees, two of which, the Politburo and the Secretariat, were the actual centres of ultimate power and authority in the Soviet Union.The Politburo, with about 24 full members, was the supreme policy-making body in the country and exercised power over every aspect of public policy, both domestic and foreign.Stalin eliminated Bukharin from the leadership in 1929 and sought to eradicate the last remnants of opposition within the party by launching the Great Purge (1934–38), in which many thousands of his real or assumed opponents were executed as traitors and millions more were imprisoned or sent to forced-labour camps.During Stalin’s years in power the party’s size expanded from about 470,000 members (1924) to several million from the 1930s on.Following victory in World War II, Stalin faced no further challenges within the party, but discontent with his tyranny and arbitrariness smoldered among the party leadership.

It was also one of the most diverse, with more than 100 distinct nationalities living within its borders. covered some 8,650,000 square miles (22,400,000 square kilometres), seven times the area of India and two and one-half times that of the United States. In January 1905, following the massacre of a worker demonstration bearing a petition drafted by the Union of Liberation (“Duma, which was empowered to initiate and veto legislative proposals.

A failed coup by communist hard-liners against Gorbachev in August 1991 discredited the CPSU and greatly hastened its decline.

In subsequent months the party was stripped of its physical assets; its control of the Soviet government, internal-security agencies, and armed forces was broken; and the party’s activities were suspended.

Soviet Union, in full Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U. The capital was Moscow, then and now the capital of Russia. extended more than 6,800 miles (10,900 kilometres) from east to west, covering 11 of the world’s 24 time zones. In the meantime the field was left to liberal intellectuals, who in January 1904 formed the Manchuria, the war went badly from the start, lowering the regime’s prestige in the eyes of the people.

R.), Russian Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik or Sovetsky Soyuz, former northern Eurasian empire (1917/22–1991) stretching from the Baltic and Black seas to the Pacific Ocean and, in its final years, consisting of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (S. R.’s): Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belorussia (now Belarus), Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kirgiziya (now Kyrgyzstan), Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia (now Moldova), Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. The government reacted with repressive measures that kept the revolutionaries at bay for the next two decades.

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